Endaka (Japanese: 円高, lit. yen expensive) or Endaka Fukyo (Japanese: 円高不況, lit. yen expensive recession) is a state in which the value of the Japanese yen is high compared to other currencies. Since the economy of Japan is highly dependent on exports, this can cause Japan to fall into an economic recession. Continue reading “Endaka”

Bretton Woods Conference

The Bretton Woods Conference, formally known as the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, was the gathering of 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations at the Mount Washington Hotel, situated in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, to regulate the international monetary and financial order after the conclusion of World War II.[1] Continue reading “Bretton Woods Conference”

Billion Dollar Day

Billion Dollar Day is a documentary about currency trading created by the British Broadcasting Corporation on 4 June 1985. The documentary focuses on three traders, each located in New York, London and Hong Kong. The traders are followed throughout a typical day in order to demonstrate the challenges and dedication of each trader.[1] Continue reading “Billion Dollar Day”

Euro calculator

euro calculator is a very popular type of calculator in European countries (see eurozone) that adopted the euro as their official monetary unit. It functions like any other normal calculator, but it also includes a special function which allows one to convert a value expressed in the previously official unit (the peseta in Spain, for example) to the new value in euros, or vice versa. Its use became very popular within the population and commerce of these countries especially during the first few months after adopting the euro. Continue reading “Euro calculator”

Bretton Woods system

The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western European countries, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton Woods Agreement. The Bretton Woods system was the first example of a fully negotiated monetary order intended to govern monetary relations among independent states. The chief features of the Bretton Woods system were an obligation for each country to adopt a monetary policy that maintained its external exchange rates within 1 percent by tying its currency to gold and the ability of the IMF to bridge temporary imbalances of payments. Also, there was a need to address the lack of cooperation among other countries and to prevent competitive devaluation of the currencies as well. Continue reading “Bretton Woods system”

Avignon Exchange

The Avignon Exchange was one of the first foreign exchange markets in history, established in the Comtat Venaissin during the Avignon Papacy. The Exchange was composed of the agents (factores) of the great Italian banking-houses, who acted as money-changers as well as financial intermediaries between the Apostolic Camera and its debtors and creditors.[1] The most prosperous quarter of the city of Avignon, where the bankers settled, became known simply as the Exchange.[1] According to de Roover, “Avignon can be considered an Italian colony, since the papal bankers were all Italians”.[2] Continue reading “Avignon Exchange”