Pens parade

Pen’s Parade or The Income Parade is a concept described in a 1971 book published by Dutch economist Jan Pen describing income distribution. The parade is defined as a succession of every person in the economy, with their height proportional to their income, and ordered from lowest to greatest. People with average income would be of average height, and so the spectator. The Pen’s description of what the spectator would see is a parade of dwarves, and then some unbelievable giants at the very end.[1] Continue reading “Pens parade”

Lost boys Mormon fundamentalism

Lost boys” is a term used for young men who have been excommunicated or pressured to leave polygamous Mormon fundamentalist groups such as the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (FLDS).[1] They are alleged to be pressured to leave by adult men to reduce competition for wives within such sects, usually when they are between the ages of 13 and 21.[2] Continue reading “Lost boys Mormon fundamentalism”

Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average (see below) time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender. The most commonly used measure is life expectancy at birth (LEB), which can be defined in two ways. Cohort LEB is the mean length of life of an actual birth cohort (all individuals born a given year) and can be computed only for cohorts born many decades ago, so that all their members have died. Period LEB is the mean length of life of a hypothetical cohort[clarification needed] assumed to be exposed, from birth through death, to the mortality rates observed at a given year.[1] Continue reading “Life expectancy”

Malthusianism

Malthusianism is the idea that population growth is potentially exponential while the growth of the food supply is linear. It derives from the political and economic thought of the Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus, as laid out in his 1798 writings, An Essay on the Principle of Population. Malthus believed there were two types of “checks” that in all times and places kept population growth in line with the growth of the food supply: “preventive checks”, such as moral restraints (abstinence and delaying marriage until finances become balanced), and restricting marriage against persons suffering poverty or perceived as defective, and “positive checks”, which lead to premature death such as disease, starvation and war, resulting in what is called a Malthusian catastrophe. The catastrophe would return the population to a lower, more “sustainable”, level.[1][2] Malthusianism has been linked to a variety of political and social movements, but almost always refers to advocates of population control.[3] Continue reading “Malthusianism”

Population ageing

Population ageing is an increasing median age in a population due to declining fertility rates and rising life expectancy. Most countries have rising life expectancy and an ageing population (trends that emerged first in developed countries, but which are now seen in virtually all developing countries). This is the case for every country in the world except the 18 countries designated as “demographic outliers” by the UN.[1][failed verification] The aged population is currently at its highest level in human history. Continue reading “Population ageing”

Income and fertility

Income and fertility is the association between monetary gain on one hand, and the tendency to produce offspring on the other. There is generally an inverse correlation between income and the total fertility rate within and between nations. The higher the degree of education and GDP per capita of a human population, subpopulation or social stratum, the fewer children are born in any industrialized country.[3] In a 1974 UN population conference in Bucharest, Karan Singh, a former minister of population in India, illustrated this trend by stating “Development is the best contraceptive.”[4] Continue reading “Income and fertility”

Law of Population

Law of Population (1830) was a massive treatise written by Michael Thomas Sadler as a response to Thomas Robert Malthus’s works on population growth, notably An Essay on the Principle of Population (first edition 1798). In his essay, Sadler refutes Malthus’ conclusions regarding the geometric growth of populations and proposes that the growth of populations is a far less worrisome menace. At this period population growth had become a “political bugbear” throughout England,[citation needed] much in a way comparable to modern day fears of terrorism or Cold War fears of nuclear war. Continue reading “Law of Population”